# Profit Margin: Bookkeeping Insights

Are you going to start a business? Do you already know how much money you want to earn? This is one of the first aspects that you have to consider. To do this, you must familiarize yourself with the net profit margin concept, which is essential in bookkeeping.

## Net Profit Margin

The net profit margin of a product is the difference between the sale price to the final consumer (without value-added tax) and the costs of production or purchase of the said product. According to this, the formula to calculate the net profit margin is:

Net profit margin = (Retail price without value added tax) – (Production or purchase costs)

Furthermore, it is examined that the net profit margin is similar to but different from the “percentage of profit” term by dividing the net profit of the sale into the cost of goods to help examine the sum of profit on the sale of the goods of a company, not the profit of the company. Rarely do the individual figures of a company (such as income or expenses) mean much about the profitability of a company, and looking at a company’s earnings often does not tell the full story. An increase in profit is a good indication, but it does not mean the company is improving its overall profit margins.

For example, let’s say that Firm A’s revenue in a year is \$2 million with accumulated spending of \$ 650,000. This will provide a net profit margin of 67.5% (\$2M – \$0.65M / \$2M = 1.35M / \$2M = 0.675 = 67.5%). However, suppose that the revenue of the company increased next year to \$2.25 million while spending increased to \$2.12 million; then the net profit margin would be 11.11% (2.25M – \$2M = 0.25M / \$2.25M = 0.11 = 11.11%). Despite the increase in revenue, Firm A’s net profit margin decreased as expenses increased more quickly than income.

Likewise, increasing or decreasing a company’s spending does not indicate improving or worsening its net profit margin. Assume that Firm B has revenue and expense of \$2 million and \$1.5 million, respectively, in one year, with a net profit margin of 25%. However, the following year, the firm restructured by lowering its total revenue and expenditure by lifting a product line. If the second-year income and expenses of Firm B are \$1.5 million and \$1.2 million, respectively, the net profit margin is now 20%. Thus, Firm B has significantly lowered its costs, but its net profit margin has fallen because revenue falls faster than spending.

## Net Profit Margin Limitations

The net profit margin carries some concomitant limitations. Although, it is a useful and popular rate. Like any financial indicator or rate, it is useful to assess a company’s profitability. However, the net profit margin can effectively compare a company’s performance within the same industry with business models. Several companies in the sector tend to have different business models and sources of income so that they can have very different net earnings.

This can lead to comparisons which generally do not make sense.
For instance, while maintaining a high profit, a company that sells luxury products can have a high percentage of profits, along with a low supply and a relatively low load. On the other hand, the stapler can have a lower snow level, a larger stock, and a greater load because of the need to increase the workload and space.

## Net Profit Margin Variations

There are several changes in the net profit margin that analysts and investors utilize to determine certain aspects of a firm’s profitability. Such a variation is the net profit margin acquired by dividing the net profit by the earned income. This change has limitations, as management often has too much control over material costs. In such a scenario, the net profit margin is less effective in defining the overall quality of management.

Additionally, industries that do not have a manufacturing process have no or low sales costs. The net profit margin is effective when it comes to companies that are involved in producing certain goods. A specific variation of the net profit margin is the
operating profit margin that divides the operating profit into income distributions. Traders and analysts can often use pre-tax profit margins by dividing their pre-tax earnings (revenue without deduction of tax costs) on a revenue basis.

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