Synonymous with the income statement, a profit and loss statement (P&L) is a complete summary of the financial standings of any business. It includes the total revenue, service and product cost, taxation, payroll, operational costs as well as the net profit of the company. Large enterprises and businesses usually compile P&L on a quarterly or bi-annual basis. Smaller enterprises maintain a monthly P&L to keep their financial standings and business trends under check.
P&L is particularly important for the filing of business tax returns. It allows business owners to calculate their net income accurately and then determine their income tax liability in a fiscal year.
P&L also plays an incredibly significant role in pitching potential investors or diving into a new business venture. Such a profit and loss statement, more aptly called a Pro-forma P&L, is a futuristic projection of estimated costs and potential revenue calculated after reviewing market trends.
It is best to use proper accounting software to create a profit and loss statement; however, if you do not have access to one, here is our 6-step guide to help you make a good profit and loss statement.
Calculating Total Revenue
It is imperative to calculate your business’s total revenue for the specified timeframe to kickstart your P&L statement. It entails not only assessing income from sales but also accounting for any additional revenue sources, such as earnings from asset sales or investments. Cross-referencing this calculated total revenue with your business account balances and financial transactions during the designated period ensures the accuracy of this crucial financial figure.
Deducting Product and Service Costs
After meticulously cross-referencing your total revenue with your bank statements, the next step involves deducting the costs associated with the products or services your business offers. These expenses encompass the amount disbursed when procuring products from external vendors, manufacturing your goods, or providing services to clients—ranging from graphic design to writing and transcribing. This process of cost deduction unveils the transparent contrast between your product and service expenses and the revenue they generate, ultimately exposing your business’s profit margin.
Calculating Gross Profit
Following the deduction of product and service costs, the subsequent step involves subtracting your company’s total operating expenses. The outcome of this calculation represents your company’s gross profit. Operating expenses encompass a broad spectrum, ranging from human resource costs and payroll to utilities, equipment, logistics, and various other expenditures directly or indirectly associated with business operations. These costs collectively underpin the financial health of your business, and understanding the gross profit is crucial in assessing your financial standing.
Adding Additional Income
Once you’ve deducted product and operational costs, the next crucial step involves adding any additional income earned by your business. This supplemental income may encompass dividends from other investments or interest income. The result of this addition is the calculation of EBIDTA (Earnings before interest, tax, depreciation, and amortization). This financial indicator provides a comprehensive snapshot of your business’s financial performance, serving as a pivotal metric for assessing profitability and financial stability.
Calculating Taxes, Depreciation, and Remunerations
Once your EBIDTA is determined, it becomes the foundation for computing your gross income. From there, you can seamlessly calculate your income tax liability. For precision in this aspect, it’s advisable to engage a taxation and asset depreciation expert to provide accurate estimations. Additionally, don’t overlook the remunerations extended to your employees or clients; ensure these are accurately calculated, considering their significance in the financial framework of your business.
Finalizing Net Profit
With your taxes and asset depreciation value accurately calculated, you can finalize your net profit. This conclusive figure represents the ultimate financial outcome of your business operations. It encapsulates the overall financial health of your company, accounting for all revenue, expenses, and tax liabilities. The net profit reveals how successful your business has been in generating income, managing costs, and complying with taxation requirements. It serves as a clear indicator of your business’s profitability and can inform critical decisions, including resource allocation, expansion plans, and investment strategies. The net profit is more than just a number; it reflects your business’s financial viability and is a critical driver in shaping its future trajectory.
In conclusion, the profit and loss statement (P&L) is an indispensable tool for businesses to assess their financial health and profitability and plan for the future. Following the steps outlined in this guide, you can accurately prepare a P&L statement, enabling you to make informed decisions, understand your business’s trends, and continuously improve your products and services. This financial document not only aids in tax reporting but also serves as a valuable asset in shaping the trajectory of your business. About Complete Controller® – America’s Bookkeeping Experts Complete Controller is the Nation’s Leader in virtual bookkeeping, providing service to businesses and households alike. Utilizing Complete Controller’s technology, clients gain access to a cloud platform where their QuickBooks™️ file, critical financial documents, and back-office tools are hosted in an efficient SSO environment. Complete Controller’s team of certified US-based accounting professionals provide bookkeeping, record storage, performance reporting, and controller services including training, cash-flow management, budgeting and forecasting, process and controls advisement, and bill-pay. With flat-rate service plans, Complete Controller is the most cost-effective expert accounting solution for business, family-office, trusts, and households of any size or complexity.